We all feel special when we get into the topic of  Space and Alien. We always look at the Night sky and always wonder what’s there beyond the large Universe.

Is there God, Aliens or Ghost world? We always feel something new when we see how vast our Universe is.

Physicist Enrico Fermi also felt something the same too. He kept asking himself, where is everybody? That’s how Fermi’s paradox appeared today.

What is Fermi’s Paradox about Alien and it’s solution ?

Fermi wasn’t the first person to ask such question about Alien intelligence. But his paradox is well known around the world as the Fermi paradox.

It is typically defined like, if the Universe is deep vast. The probability of intelligent alien life seems almost definite.

But since the Universe is also 14 billion years old, its seems to afford plenty of time for these beings to make themselves know to human. So, well where is everybody?

Night sky seems vast and we can see about 2500 stars roughly 100 millionth of stars are in our Milky way Galaxy.

And almost all of them are less than 1,000 light years away from us or 1% of the diameter of Milky Way.

There are 250 billion ± 150 billion stars in our galaxy and there are roughly 2 trillion galaxies  in the observable universe.

total number of star in observable universe

Observable Universe

Altogether that comes out typically one power 24 total star in the observable universe. Which means that, for every grain of sand on every beach on Earth there are 10,000 stars out there.

Belief on Hypothesis about Alien contact

According to Zoo, The Zoo hypothesis : the assumed behavior and existence of technically advanced life and the reasons they refrain from contacting Earth. 

The hypothesis is that alien life intentionally avoids communication with Earth, and one of its main explanation is that it does so to allow for natural evolution.

For example aliens might choose to allow contact once the human species has passed certain technological, political, or ethical standards.

They might refrain contact until humans force contact to them, possibly by sending a spacecraft to the planets they colonize.

An alien society with advanced technologies may conclude that direct contact with them may result out risk.


Actually they are trying to find humans. And some of them have already did, but they are scared of human despite of their development.

They have to overcome the truth of them and us. Maybe they are still roaming somewhere in the Universe.

Black Holes

A black hole is a region of space time exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing, not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light can escape from inside it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform space time to form a black hole.

The boundary of the region from which no escape is possible is called the event horizon. Although the event horizon has an enormous effect on the fate and circumstances of an object crossing it, no locally detectable features appear to be observed.[8] In many ways a black hole acts like an ideal black body, as it reflects no light.

Moreover, quantum field theory in curved space time predicts that event horizons emit Hawking radiation, with the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass. This temperature is on the order of billionths of a kelvin for black holes of stellar mass, making it essentially impossible to observe.

How are Black Holes identified?

As the universe is too big and dark, we can barely see the black holes because of the matching colors of both bodies. But scientists had found a way to spot a black hole by following the massive shadow cast by it in many heavenly bodies.

Event Horizon Telescope(EHT) Project

The Event Horizon Telescope is a project to create a large telescope array consisting of a global network of radio telescopes and combining data from several very-long-baseline interferometry stations around the Earth. The aim is to observe the immediate environment of the super massive black hole Sagittarius A* at the center of the Milky Way, as well as the even larger black hole in the center of the super giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87, with angular resolution comparable to the black hole’s event horizon.

It previously, on 10th April, 2019 was successful to capture the photo of a super massive Black Hole, located at the center of Messier 87 Galaxy, commonly known as M87. The Black Hole located there is about 6.5 Billion times massive than our Sun of solar system. The black hole was given the name Pōwehi, meaning “embellished dark source of unending creation” in Hawaiian.

Messier 87(M87)

Messier 87(M87) is a super giant elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo. One of the most massive galaxies in the local Universe. It has a large population of globular clusters about 12,000 compared with the 150–200 orbiting the Milky Way and a jet of energetic plasma that originates at the core and extends at least 1,500 parsecs (4,900 light-years), traveling at relativistic speed. It is one of the brightest radio sources in the sky, and a popular target for both amateur and professional astronomers.

The French astronomer Charles Messier discovered M87 in 1781, and cataloged it as a nebulous feature while searching for objects that would otherwise confuse comet hunters. M87 is located about 16.4 million parsecs (53 million light-years) from Earth and is the second-brightest galaxy within the northern Virgo Cluster, having many satellite galaxies. Unlike a disk-shaped spiral galaxy, M87 has no distinctive dust lanes. Instead, it has an almost featureless, ellipsoidal shape typical of most giant elliptical galaxies, diminishing in luminosity with distance from the center. Forming around one-sixth of its mass, M87’s stars have a nearly spherically symmetric distribution. Their population density decreases with increasing distance from the core. It has an active super massive black hole at its core, which forms the primary component of an active galactic nucleus. The black hole was imaged in 2017 by the Event Horizon Telescope, with a final, processed image released on 10 April 2019.

The galaxy is a strong source of multi wavelength radiation, particularly radio waves. Its galactic envelope extends to a radius of about 150 kilo-parsecs (490 thousand light-years), where it is truncated possibly by an encounter with another galaxy. Its interstellar medium consists of diffuse gas enriched by elements emitted from evolved stars.

Super Massive Black Hole

A super massive black hole is the largest type of black hole, containing a mass of the order of hundreds of thousands, to billions of times, the mass of the Sun. This is a class of astronomical objects that has undergone gravitational collapse, leaving behind a spheroidal region of space from which nothing can escape, not even light. Observational evidence indicates that all, or nearly all, massive galaxies contain a super massive black hole, located at the galaxy’s center. In the case of the Milky Way, the super massive black hole corresponds to the location of Sagittarius A* at the Galactic Core. Accretion of interstellar gas onto super massive black holes is the process responsible for powering quasars and other types of active galactic nuclei.

First Image of Black Hole

On 10th April, 2019, The first ever real image of black hole was captured. It was so tiny in the picture that the crew scientists had to zoom it till it was formed bigger. The Diameter of super massive Black Hole in was 0.000100 cm.

The first ever picture of black hole has now open a new era for astrophysicists.

But the exciting thing is that, The General Theory of Relativity, first proposed by renowned Physicist Albert Einstein, had passed the test again. The thing is that, before 100 years before, in 1915 AD, among billion brain, only 1 brain of Albert Einstein could imagine it. Therefore, the very old General Theory of Relativity passed the test of several scientists and is in practice today as well.

“Imagination is important than Knowledge. Knowledge is Limited. Imagination encircles the World. Imagination is the language of Soul.”

– Renowned Physicist Albert Einstein


Radio Signals

Recently on January 9, 2019, Astronauts have detected 13 high-speed radio waves coming from deep space with unusual repeating sounds. While the exact sources remain unknown, the new bevy of mysterious blasts does offer fresh clues to where and why such flashes appear across the cosmos.

This also includes the new search for aliens. According to astronauts, these radio waves were coming from the source which is 1.5 billion light-years away from us. This possibly mean, this radio wave was sent 1 billion years before when the Earth was on baby stage i.e 3.6 billion years ago when humans didn’t even existed.

Fast radio bursts, as they are known to scientists, are among the universe’s most bizarre phenomena. Each burst lasts just thousandths of a second, and they all appear to be coming from far outside our home galaxy, the Milky Way.

But here, new question arises,

Was this source a Alien Spaceship?

Probably, everyone will be excited to know this, but this source is too far from us which is about impossible for them to travel in their 1 life. As, it was sent 1.5 billion years before, they are very old messages and it is repeating unusually.

“It doesn’t mean that they’re traveling from further away,” says study author Shriharsh Tendulkar, a postdoctoral fellow in the department of physics at McGill University. “As light propagates through the hot gas and plasma in the intergalactic medium and the interstellar medium, it has a bunch of different effects on the signal.”

For instance, the radio waves get twisted as they travel through space and can scatter or be absorbed by gas and plasma. The team therefore thinks that all 13 bursts likely originated from dense, turbulent regions inside of their host galaxies, particularly areas with a lot of violent activity, such as near dense supernova remnants or close to black holes.

Deepening mystery

Tendulkar and the team also noticed that the structure of the new repeating burst is strikingly similar to the only other repeater ever found.

“The fact that we see these multiple structures in the burst was very similar to the first repeating fast radio burst. This is very uncommon,” he says. “Now there is this tantalizing evidence that these bursts’ structures are seen only in repeaters.” That suggests that if more fast radio bursts are found with that structure, they may be prime candidates for also being repeaters.

The new repeating burst is brighter than the previous detection, which might be due to the fact that it is 1.5 billion light-years closer, but the team can’t know that for sure. To draw more comparisons, they’ll have to search the skies for the new burst’s host galaxy, which is not a guaranteed find. In the meantime, the team is continuing to use CHIME to observe the region of the sky where these bursts came from, as well as using other radio telescopes to follow up on the finds.

“We are trying to build up clues and trying to understand whether the repeating fast radio bursts and single fast radio bursts are different populations,” Tendulkar says. “Do they come from different objects? Or are they related in some way to each other? We are trying to figure these things out, so that’s really exciting.”

What’s more, when CHIME detected these new bursts, it was only running at a fraction of its capacity, and the team is excited to see how many more will appear in their data now that the instrument is fully up and running.

“The CHIME discovery points to a huge potential,” says Shami Chatterjee, a senior researcher at the Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science who was not involved in the latest discoveries. “I’m intensely curious how many [fast radio bursts] they are sitting on now. They must have dozens or hundreds.”

Finding yet more bursts means that the odd occurrences could be effective tools for understanding the traces of gas, dust, and plasma that exist in the seemingly empty space between galaxies, called the intergalactic medium, Chatterjee adds.

“Everyone agrees that in the intergalactic medium, it’s very hard to have a probe that can tell you about its makeup,” Chatterjee says. “It is orders of magnitude emptier than our own interstellar medium, but because of the [fast radio bursts] that we are now finding, it is going to be one of the few ways that we can probe this medium and understand those environments.”

And for now, Tendulkar notes that the mystery surrounding fast radio bursts remains part of their appeal.

“There is a lot of fun in the not knowing,” he says. “You keep adding more information, but as in all sciences, whenever you solve one mystery, it always opens up three more.”

Sarco Suicide Machine

Death could be as easy, quick, and painless as simply pressing a button. The world’s first 3D-printable suicide machine was on show in Australia in October, 2018 with Exit International director Dr. Philip Nitschke hoping it will appeal to Victorian patients seeking an “elegant and stylish death” under new euthanasia laws. “Virtual Reality offers person to experience their own Virtual Death” Dr. Nitschke said.

Philip Nitschke is the founder and director of Exit International. A former medical doctor, in 1996 Philip helped 4 of his terminally ill patients to die using Australia’s Rights of the Terminally Ill Act.

The plan for this machine was started from early October, 2017. They have finished 3D-printable suicide machine. And finally it was on show in Australia for general public peoples.

Open to the public for the first time, Dr. Philip Nitschke (nicknamed Dr. Death) announced plans to debut his latest suicide-assisting machine “Sarco” (short for sarcophagus) at Amsterdam’s Funeral Fair in October. You can also try it out for yourself at least, in virtual reality by stepping inside a full-size depiction of the euthanasia capsule. With VR glasses give the user a glimpse into how the death machine operates.

Plans for 3D-printing the capsule are freely available on the Internet, according to Nitschke, who says the device can be assembled anywhere to “allow a person a peaceful passing” at a location of their choosing.

Direction of Use

Potential users for the real deal will have to fill out an online test to gauge their mental fitness. If passed, they will then receive an access code valid for 24 hours. Once the code is entered, another confirmation from the user must be given to let them know what they are doing.

How will it work?

The Sarco will sit on a generator that uses liquid nitrogen that, when released, will bring down the level of oxygen in the capsule to induce Hypoxia. The brain relies on oxygen to function. When put in environments with low levels of oxygen, the body slowly begins to shut down, resulting in confusion, increased heart rate, rapid breathing, shortness of breath, sweating, and wheezing. In the Sarco, however, Nitschke says death will have “style and elegance” within one minute, the user loses consciousness. Death shortly follows.

To activate the process, a person simply steps inside, lies down and, when ready, presses a button.

Company’s founder says ““A Sarco death is painless. There’s no suffocation, choking sensation or ‘air hunger’ as the user breathes easily in a low-oxygen environment. The sensation is one of well-being and intoxication”

Idea theme

With the motto of ‘Peaceful death is everyone’s right’, they constructed this eye blink Suicide story with a starting of intense story of life.

He says the idea for the invention was sparked by conversations in 2012 over the case of British man Tony Nicklinson, who suffered from locked-in syndrome – the result of a severe stroke in 2005 that had left him unable to speak or move.

Mr Nicklinson fought a long, and ultimately unsuccessful, court battle in a bid to allow his doctors legally to assist his suicide. In search of assisted suicide options, his lawyer reached out to Dr Nitschke, who began to consider how it would be possible for an individual whose movements were limited to blinking might be able to trigger death without the need for help by others.

The resulting device is intended to offer people the option of peacefully ending their life without assistance, in a way that is, according to Dr Nitschke, effective and dignified.

“Death shouldn’t be something you do hidden away in a back room somewhere,” Dr Nitschke said.

“Death is the time which comes once in life, so why not make our last day on world end with experience of amazing death?” he added.

The first fully-functional Sarco device is set to be built later this year in the Netherlands, before being shipped to Switzerland where assisted suicide is legal. Dr Nitschke plans to develop according to 3D-printable version of the machine.

Beyond the terminally ill who are seeking options for a dignified way to end their life, the Sarco is also intended to open up the conversation about death and euthanasia without the underlying connotations of fear and shock.


Sacro will not be for sell in any part of the world. As to use it, you should pass and online test. Sarco is completely bio degradable. As per, Liquid Nitrogen will be obtained from welding and gas supplies. The Sarco provides a hypoxic death. Hypoxia means low oxygen. This is the same as when a plane depressurizes. The experience of being in a low oxygen environment can be intoxicating.


The detailed technical specifications and plans will only be available to subscribers to The Peaceful Pill eHandbook.  All purchasers of the eHandbook have their ID vetted.

A second safeguard is the AI (artificial intelligence) mental capacity test that will be incorporated into the design and use of Sarco.

To gain entry to Sarco, the person will need a code. This code will only be issued after the person has completed an online mental capacity test showing that they understand what they are doing, why they are doing and the consequences of their actions.

Failure to complete the test will result in the non-issuance of the essential code.

Besides, a Sarco will never lend itself to rash, impulsive action. While 3D printing was done quickly as the technology improves, it will never be fast. Use of a Sarco will require significant planning ahead. This will serve to protect the vulnerable from acting irrationally.


Solar System

The Solar System is the gravitational bound system of the planets and the Sun plus other objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of the objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets, with the remainder being smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies.

Our solar system consists of an average star we call the Sun, the 8 Planets, the satellites of the planets; numerous comets, asteroids, and meteoroids; and the interplanetary medium.


Planets are divided into 2 types; 1. Inner Planets, 2. Superior Planets. They are:

Inner Planets

  1. Mercury
  2. Venus
  3. Earth
  4. Mars

Superior Planets

  1. Jupiter
  2. Saturn
  3. Uranus
  4. Neptune

Facts of Every Planets


  • A year on Mercury is just 88 days long.
  • Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System.
  • Mercury is the second densest planet.
  • Mercury has wrinkles.
  • Mercury has a molten core.


  • A year on Venus is 224 days.
  • Venus is 6th largest planet in Solar System.
  • Venus is referred as the Earth’s sister planet due the their similar size and mass.
  • Venus is the second brightest object in the night sky after the Moon.
  •  Venus was named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty.


  • A year on Earth is 365 Days.
  • It is the 5th largest planet on Solar System.
  • It is only the Living Planet on Solar System.
  • It has only one Moon.
  • The Earth is the only planet in our solar system not to be named after a Greek or Roman deity.


  • A year on Mars is 687 Days.
  • It is the 7th largest planet on Solar System only before Mercury.
  • It was named after the Roman god of war.
  • Mars is also often described as the “Red Planet” due to its reddish appearance.
  • It is only the planet where it is believed humans can survive.


  • A year on Jupiter is 4,333 Days.
  • It is the Largest planet on Solar System.
  • It is two and a half times more massive than all the other planets in the Solar System combined.
  • It is made primarily of gases and is therefore known as a ‘Gas Giant’.
  • It has the highest number of moon i.e. 67 counts.


  • A year on Saturn is 10,756 Days.
  • It is 2nd largest planet on Solar System.
  • Saturn can be seen with the naked eye.
  • It is best known for its fabulous ring system that was first observed in 1610 by the astronomer Galileo Galilei.
  • Saturn is a gas giant and is composed of similar gasses including hydrogen, helium and methane.


  • A year on Uranus is 30,687 Days.
  • It is 3rd largest planet in Solar System.
  • While being visible to the naked eye, it was not recognized as a planet due to its dimness and slow orbit.
  • Uranus became the first planet discovered with the use of a telescope.
  • It is often described as “rolling around the Sun on its side.”


  • A year on Neptune is 60,190 Days.
  • It is 4th largest planet in Solar System.
  • This gas giant planet may have formed much closer to the Sun in early solar system history before migrating to its present position.
  • It has 13 Moons.
  • It was Discovered in September 23rd 1846.

Planets Profile

Mercury Planet Profile

Diameter: 4,879 km
Mass: 3.30 x 10^23 kg (5.5% Earth)
Moons: None
Orbit Distance: 57,909,227 km (0.39 AU)
Orbit Period: 88 days
Surface Temperature: -173 to 427°C
First Record: 14th century BC
Recorded By: Assyrian astronomers

Venus Planet Profile

Diameter: 12,104 km
Mass: 4.87 x 10^24 kg (81.5% Earth)
Moons: None
Orbit Distance: 108,209,475 km (0.73 AU)
Orbit Period: 225 days
Surface Temperature: 462 °C
First Record: 17th century BC
Recorded By: Babylonian astronomers

Earth Planet Profile

Equatorial Diameter: 12,756 km
Polar Diameter: 12,714 km
Mass: 5.97 x 10^24 kg
Moons: 1 (The Moon)
Orbit Distance: 149,598,262 km (1 AU)
Orbit Period: 365.24 days
Surface Temperature: -88 to 58°C

Mars Planet Profile

Equatorial Diameter: 6,792 km
Polar Diameter: 6,752 km
Mass: 6.42 x 10^23 kg (10.7% Earth)
Moons: 2 (Phobos & Demios)
Orbit Distance: 227,943,824 km (1.52 AU)
Orbit Period: 687 days (1.9 years)
Surface Temperature: -153 to 20 °C
First Record: 2nd millennium BC
Recorded By: Egyptian astronomers

Jupiter Planet Profile

Equatorial Diameter: 142,984 km
Polar Diameter: 133,709 km
Mass: 1.90 × 10^27 kg (318 Earths)
Moons: 79 (Io, Europa, Ganymede & Callisto)
Rings: 4
Orbit Distance: 778,340,821 km (5.20 AU)
Orbit Period: 4,333 days (11.9 years)
Effective Temperature: -148 °C
First Record: 7th or 8th century BC
Recorded By: Babylonian astronomers

Saturn Planet Profile

Equatorial Diameter: 120,536 km
Polar Diameter: 108,728 km
Mass: 5.68 × 10^26 kg (95 Earths)
Moons: 62 (Titan, Enceladus, Iapetus &Rhea)
Rings: 30+ (7 Groups)
Orbit Distance: 1,426,666,422 km (9.54 AU)
Orbit Period: 10,756 days (29.5 years)
Effective Temperature: -178 °C
First Record: 8th century BC
Recorded By: Assyrians

Uranus Planet Profile

Equatorial Diameter: 51,118 km
Polar Diameter: 49,946 km
Mass: 8.68 × 10^25 kg (15 Earths)
Moons: 27 (Miranda, Titania, Ariel, Umbriel & Oberon)
Rings: 13
Orbit Distance: 2,870,658,186 km (19.19 AU)
Orbit Period: 30,687 days (84.0 years)
Effective Temperature: -216 °C
Discovery Date: March 13th 1781
Discovered By: William Herschel

Neptune Planet Profile

Equatorial Diameter: 49,528 km
Polar Diameter: 48,682 km
Mass: 1.02 × 10^26 kg (17 Earths)
Moons: 14 (Triton)
Rings: 5
Orbit Distance: 4,498,396,441 km (30.10 AU)
Orbit Period: 60,190 days (164.8 years)
Effective Temperature: -214 °C
Discovery Date: September 23rd 1846
Discovered By: Urbain Le Verrier & Johann Galle


Blood is the red liquid that circulates in the arteries and veins of humans and other vertebrate animals, carrying oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the tissues of the body.. It is found in fluid state in humans and other animals. It delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic, waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma.

Blood is a circulatory fluids flows into the viens or arteries. There are 8 different types of blood group and here we are going to discuss about the facts, types, catagories and all explanation about blood group.Blood Group Explanation Types Diet Facts Of Blood Group

Blood Group(Blood Type)

There are four main blood groups (types of blood) – A, B, AB and O(ABO System). Your blood group is determined by the genes you inherit from your parents. Each group can be either RhD(Rheumatic Heart Disease) positive or RhD(Rheumatic Heart Disease) negative, which means in total there are eight main blood groups.

Blood Category

Human blood is grouped into four types: A, B, AB, and O. Each letter refers to a kind of antigen, or protein, on the surface of red blood cells. For example, the surface of red blood cells in Type A blood has antigens known as A-antigens.

How blood groups are different?

Antigens and various proteins float in the plasma and on red blood cells. The ABO grouping system refers to the genetically-determined individual differences in the presence of two antigens (A and B), which stimulate the production of different antibodies.

How is your Blood Group determined?

Actually, your blood group is inherent and are determined genetically. For instance:- The A and B antigen molecules on the surface of red blood cells are made by two different enzymes. These two enzymes are encoded by different versions, or alleles, of the same gene.

The A allele codes for an enzyme that makes the A antigen, and the B allele codes for an enzyme that makes the B antigen. A third version of this gene, the O allele, codes for a protein that is not functional; it makes no surface molecules at all.

Everyone inherits two alleles of the gene, one from each parent. The combination of your two alleles determines your blood type.

Blood Groups Facts

Healthy Eating for Blood Group types:

Type O(+ve or -ve) blood:

A high-protein diet heavy on lean meat, poultry, fish and vegetables, and light on grains, beans and dairy.

Type A(+ve or -ve) blood:

A meat-free diet rich in fruits and vegetables, beans and legumes, and whole grains—ideally, organic and fresh.

Type B(+ve or -ve) blood: 

Foods to focus on are green vegetables, eggs, certain meats and low-fat dairy. Avoid corn, wheat, buckwheat, lentils, tomatoes, peanuts and sesame seeds.

Type AB(+ve or -ve) blood:

Foods to focus on include tofu, seafood, dairy and green vegetables. Avoid caffeine, alcohol and smoked or cured meats.

Exercising for you Healthy Blood Body:

Type O(+ve or -ve) blood:

You tend to be strong and athletic with powerful arms and legs and, because you’re no longer chasing your meals, crave high-intensity workouts like interval training, running, and plyometrics. You use exercise as an emotional outlet, and need it more than other blood types to fight stress and anxiety and boost your mood.

Type A(+ve or -ve) blood:

Intense exercise increases your levels of the stress hormone cortisol and leads to muscle fatigue and stiffness. You do best by opting for calming activities that help you focus and protect your joints, like Pilates, yoga, Tai Chi and isometric exercises.

Type B(+ve or -ve) blood:

 You’ll enjoy group cardio workouts that are slightly lower impact, like tennis or cycling, as well as resistance training.

Type AB(+ve or -ve) blood:

 You tend to get muscle and joint stiffness from high-power cardio sessions, so you’ll be more apt to stick with gentle exercise, like walking, hiking, golf or dance. However, you also tend to internalize anger, so yoga and Tai Chi can be helpful for keeping your mood level and your muscles and joints limber.

Blood Transfusion

Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one’s circular intravenously. Transfusions are used for various medical conditions to replace lost components of the blood. Early transfusions used whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells,plasma,clotting factors, and platelets.

Risks of Blood Transfusion

Blood transfusions are generally considered safe, but there is some risk of complications. Mild complications and rarely severe ones can occur during the transfusion or several days or more after. More common reactions include allergic reactions, which might cause hives and itching, and fever.

Some other Major risks are:

Bloodborne infections

Blood banks screen donors and test donated blood to reduce the risk of transfusion-related infections, so infections, such as HIV or hepatitis B or C, are extremely rare.

Also rare, these include:

Acute immune hemolytic reaction:

Your immune system attacks the transfused red blood cells because the donor blood type is not a good match. The attacked cells release a substance into your blood that harms your kidneys.

Delayed hemolytic reaction.

Similar to an acute immune hemolytic reaction, this reaction occurs more slowly. It can take one to four weeks to notice a decrease in red blood cell levels.

Graft-versus-host disease.

In this condition, transfused white blood cells attack your bone marrow. Usually fatal, it’s more likely to affect people with severely weakened immune systems, such as those being treated for leukemia or lymphoma.

80 Amazing Interesting Facts About Human Blood Which You Don’t Know !

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1. Nearly 7% of the body weight of a human is made up of blood.

2. Platelets, white blood cells and red blood cells are present in blood.

3. Blood consists of a yellow liquid which is known as blood plasma.

4. Blood plasma is primarily made up of water. 90% of blood plasma is water.

5. Blood plasma also consists of hormones, glucose, proteins, gases, electrolytes and nutrients.

6. Platelets, white blood cells and red blood cells are all found floating in blood plasma.

7. Blood plasma can be separated using centrifuge device which spins blood at a very high speed. The cells then get collected at the bottom of the tube, separating blood plasma from the cells.

8. Only the red blood cells in our blood are responsible for carrying oxygen.

9. Red blood cells consist of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is actually a protein that contains iron. Oxygen combines with this iron and gives the characteristic red color to our blood as well as hemoglobin.

10. Unlike red blood cells, the white blood cells in our blood form the defensive system of our body. These white blood cells are responsible for fighting viruses, bacteria and other infectious diseases. They also fight cancer cells and other unwanted material that enter human body.

11. Platelets are completely different and are responsible for blood clotting whenever bleeding occurs because of a cut or bruise. This prevents unwanted loss of blood.

12. While blood clotting is meant for good, it can become dangerous. If blood clots in blood vessels of heart, one can experience heart attack. Similarly, blood clot in brain can lead to stroke.

13. Blood is not just responsible for carrying oxygen to different parts of the body. It also carries nutrients to body cells. At the same time, it also carries away unwanted waste material away from the cells.

14. Blood pressure is actually the pressure exerted by blood on blood vessel walls. BP is a vital sign of life.

15. High BP implies increased risk of stroke and heart attack.

16. Average blood pressure will always vary from one person to another despite the fact that standard considered BP is 112/64 mmHg.

17. Though we are familiar with common blood types A, B, AB and O, which is a part of simplified ABO system, there are actually around 30 different recognized blood groups or blood types.

18. An adult body has 100,000 kilometers or 60,000 miles of blood vessels running throughout the body.

19. The average volume of blood present in an adult male body is 5.6 liters while an adult female body contains 4.5 liters of blood on an average.

20. A new born baby will have around 1 cup of blood in its body.

21. Blood plasma we mentioned earlier makes up around 55% of the total volume of blood present in human body.

22. Blood consists of a special type of white blood cell known as granulocyte. These cells roll along blood vessel walls and hunt for bacteria. If they find any harmful bacteria, granulocytes will destroy these bacteria by engulfing them.

23. Red blood cells survive in circulatory system for no more than 120 days.

24. Platelets, plasma and red blood cells are constantly produced by bone marrow.

25. Donated red blood cells cannot be stored for more than 42 days.

26. Donated platelets cannot be stored for more than 5 days.

27. Donated blood plasma can be stored for 1 year in frozen condition.

28. Platelets, red blood cells and blood plasma can be separately donated instead of donating blood as a whole. This type of donation is known as Apheresis.

29. Humans can have artificial heart but there is absolutely no substitute for human blood. There is no such thing called artificial blood.

30. Our body has about 0.2 mg of gold. Most of this gold is actually in our blood.

31. We find pus kind of disgusting but it is actually nothing but white blood cells that died while defending our body against infections.

32. The only place where blood cannot be found in human body is the eye because cornea is capable of directly extracting oxygen from air.

33. Supply of blood in blood vessels located in nose increases when someone catches cold. This happens to keep the nose warm. As a result of this blood vessels dilate and increase mucus production and leads to runny nose.

34. Scientists have come up with a method that can be used to send oxygen directly to blood without using the lungs.

35. Mosquitoes have an uncanny preference to the blood type they suck. They prefer blood group O more than other blood groups.

36. 1,200,000 mosquitoes together need to suck out blood once from a human body to drain out entire blood in his or her body.

37. More than 400 gallons of blood are filtered by our kidneys every single day.

38. Nearly 1/4th of total cells in human body are red blood cells. So, the total number of red blood cells in an adult human body at any given point in time is around 20-30 trillion. The total number of white blood cells in an adult human body is between 4,000 and 11,000. Please remember that these numbers are just best estimates based on size and volume of the cells in comparison to total mass of an adult human body.

39. Nearly 2 million red blood cells in an adult human body die every one second.

40. Nearly 2 million red blood cells are produced in bone marrow every one second so that they can replace the dead cells.

41. Our heart pumps 1.5 million barrels of blood during our entire lifetime. This is enough blood to completely fill 200 tank cars of train.

42. Every two seconds, someone in this world will need blood.

43. The donated blood is actually sold on market collecting 4.5 billion US dollars a year! That’s a huge industry.

44. Donating blood never reduces a person’s physical energy.

45. The amount of fluid lost when donating blood is actually replaced by our body within a few hours.

46. It takes up to 4 weeks to replace the number of red blood cells lost during blood donation.

47. It takes up to 8 weeks to replace the amount of iron lost after blood donation. This is precisely why a person is not allowed to donate blood twice within 8 weeks.

48. On an average, an adult human body (not considering whether male or female) consists of 5 liters of blood which is equivalent to 10 pints of blood.

49. One pint of blood is capable of saving 3 lives.

50. If a person donates blood every 56 days (8 weeks) starting at the age of 17 and stops donating at the age of 79, he or she would donate a total of 46.5 gallons of blood, which is equivalent to 176 liters of blood.

51. Someone in the world actually donates blood every 8 minutes.

52. Out of every 10 people entering hospital will need blood.

53. Anywhere between 2 and 25 units or pints of blood is required during brain surgery.

54. Anywhere between 2 and 5 units or pints of blood is required during hip replacement surgery.

55. At least 4 units or pints of blood may be required for cancer treatment.

56. People suffering from sickle cell disease need up to 4 pints or units of blood every single month to survive.

57. Victims of severe car accidents need up to 50 pints or units of blood before their conditions normalize.

58. Not everyone willing to donate blood is allowed to do so. People are usually screened for transmittable diseases before they are allowed to donate blood.

59. Patients who suffer from anemia require blood transfusion so that the count of red blood cells in their blood can be increased.

60. Shortage of supply of all blood groups increase during both winter and summer holidays. The two most common blood groups that fall short very often are B and O.

61. At the age of 13, a person named James Harrison needed 13 liters of blood for a major surgery. After he turned 18, he started donating blood. It was found that his blood contained a very rare antigen that was capable of curing Rhesus disease. Till date, Harrison has donated blood 1,000 times and is responsible for curing 2,000,000 unborn babies from that disease.

62. Bayer pharmaceutics is possibly one of the most unethical companies in this world. The company once sold blood products that were contaminated with Hepatitis C and HIV. By the time the company learned that the product was contaminated, 10,000 people in US had already contracted HIV. The company did withdraw the products from US market but sold them in Latin American and Asian markets to continue profiting from the products.

63. In Ireland there was a tradition of giving a pint of guinness to anyone who donated a pint of blood. The pint of Guinness was given to replace the iron the donors lost by donating blood.

64. Saddam Hussein, during the late 90s, commissioned some people to write a Quran using his blood. The Quran was written but it remains a paradox for Muslim leaders. A Quran cannot be written using blood because it is a sin in Islam but the Quran cannot be destroyed either because that too is a sin. That Quran exists but no one knows what to do with it.

65. There is a type of fatal blood disease whose only cure is to donate blood. The disease is known as hemochromatosis, which is actually a genetic mutation where too much iron gets absorbed in gut causing toxic iron buildup in organs.

66. George Washington was killed by his doctors. He was actually bled to death. Doctors used the then popular practice of bloodletting to cure his sore throat problem. It was nothing but a method of removing dirty blood. By the time bloodletting treatment was finished, more than half of total blood in Washington’s body had been removed which turned out to be fatal.

67. Blood type is an indicator of a person’s personality – this is what Japanese people believe. Thus, Japanese market is flood with good themed after blood types. Products like books, drinks, condoms etc. with blood-type theme are sold in Japan.

68. Even Facebook’s Japanese version has a drop down option of ‘Blood Type’ for user profiles!

69. Blood can become dark greenish-black in color. This usually happens because of a type of migraine medication.

70. Ancient Egyptians believed that wine was nothing but blood of people who dared to battle against gods. The reason why they believed this is that drinking wine temporarily made people crazy and drove them out of their senses. This is precisely why ancient Egyptian avoided drinking wine.

71. Every year, around 1.3 million pints or units of donated blood is wasted because the shelf life of blood is 42 days.

72. Kidneys are actually responsible for regulating the production of red blood cells in human body. Kidneys are responsible for producing erythropoietin hormone (EPO) that binds with the receptors in stem cell walls in bone marrow and after a complex set of events, the DNA of stem cells are transformed into red blood cells.

73. Kidneys will release EPO only when it finds that oxygen levels in blood have gone below normal. In other words, kidneys are responsible for measuring levels of oxygen in blood.

74. People suffering with kidney failure generally become anemic because kidneys fail to produce enough EPO that can stimulate the production of red blood cells in bone marrow. This however never means that all anemic patients have failed kidneys.

75. The first ever successful blood transfusion was not between humans but between dogs and this event took place somewhere in 1660s.

76. The first ever blood bank of the world was opened in Chicago in year 1936.

77. William Harvey was the first person to describe blood circulation in 1628.

78. The circumference of earth is 40,000 kilometers or 25,000 miles. If all blood vessels in a human body are placed end to end, they can wrap around our earth nearly 2.5 times!

79. Red blood cells are special cells in our body. They do not have nuclei. Because there is no nucleus in a red blood cell, it cannot multiply through cell division because for a cell to undergo cell division, a nucleus is necessary. Thus, red blood cells simply die out after 120 days.

80. Blood has wonderful staining property. It is because of this property that Native Americans often used blood as paint!

Brief Description Of Quantum Mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including Quantum Field Theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particle.

Quantum mechanics is weird. The theory, which describes the workings of tiny particles and forces, notoriously made Albert Einstein so uneasy that in 1935 he and his colleagues claimed that it must be incomplete—it was too “spooky” to be real.

Uses of Quantum Mechanics

Today, the most precise clocks in the world, atomic clocks, are able to use principles of quantum theory to measure time. They monitor the specific radiation frequency needed to make electrons jump between energy levels. Researchers’ next big goal is to successfully use entanglement to enhance precision.

Some of the uses of Quantum Mechanic are;

1. Ultra-Precise Clocks

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Reliable timekeeping is about more than just your morning alarm. Clocks synchronize our technological world, keeping things like stock markets and GPS systems in line. Standard clocks use the regular oscillations of physical objects like pendulums or quartz crystals to produce their ‘ticks’ and ‘tocks’. Today, the most precise clocks in the world, atomic cloaks, are able to use principles of quantum theory to measure time. They monitor the specific radiation frequency needed to make electrons jump between energy levels. The quantum-logic cloak at the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Colorado only loses or gains a second every 3.7 billion years. And the NIST strontium clock, unveiled earlier this year, will be that accurate for 5 billion years—longer than the current age of the Earth. Such super-sensitive atomic clocks help with GPS navigation, telecommunications and surveying.

The precision of atomic clocks relies partially on the number of atoms used. Kept in a vacuum chamber, each atom independently measures time and keeps an eye on the random local differences between itself and its neighbors. If scientists cram 100 times more atoms into an atomic clock, it becomes 10 times more precise—but there is a limit on how many atoms you can squeeze in. Researchers’ next big goal is to successfully use entanglement to enhance precision. Entangled atoms would not be preoccupied with local differences and would instead solely measure the passage of time, effectively bringing them together as a single pendulum. That means adding 100 times more atoms into an entangled clock would make it 100 times more precise. Entangled clocks could even be linked to form a worldwide network that would measure time independent of location.

2. Uncrakable Codes

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Traditional cryptography works using keys: A sender uses one key to encode information, and a recipient uses another to decode the message. However, it’s difficult to remove the risk of an eavesdropper, and keys can be compromised. This can be fixed using potentially unbreakable quantum key distribution (QKD). In QKD, information about the key is sent via photons that have been randomly polarized. This restricts the photon so that it vibrates in only one plane—for example, up and down, or left to right. The recipient can use polarized filters to decipher the key and then use a chosen algorithm to securely encrypt a message. The secret data still gets sent over normal communication channels, but no one can decode the message unless they have the exact quantum key. That’s tricky, because quantum rules dictate that “reading” the polarized photons will always change their states, and any attempt at eavesdropping will alert the communicators to a security breach.

Today companies such as BBN Technologies, Toshiba and ID Quantique use QKD to design ultra-secure networks. In 2007 Switzerland tried out an ID Quantique product to provide a tamper-proof voting system during an election. And the first bank transfer using entangled QKD went ahead in Austria in 2004. This system promises to be highly secure, because if the photons are entangled, any changes to their quantum states made by interlopers would be immediately apparent to anyone monitoring the key-bearing particles. But this system doesn’t yet work over large distances. So far, entangled photons have been transmitted over a Maximum distance of about 88 miles.

3. Super-powerful Computers

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A standard computer encodes information as a string of binary digits, or bits. Quantum computers supercharge processing power because they use quantum bits, or qubits, which exist in a superposition of states—until they are measured, qubits can be both “1” and “0″ at the same time.

This field is still in development, but there have been steps in the right direction. In 2011, D-Wave Systems revealed the D-Wave One, a 128-qubit processor, followed a year later by the 512-qubit D-Wave Two. The company says these are the world’s first commercially available quantum computers. However, this claim has been met with skepticism, in part because it’s still unclear whether D-Wave’s qubits are entangled. Studies released in May found evidence of entanglement but only in a small subset of the computer’s qubits. There’s also uncertainty over whether the chips display any reliable quantum speedway. Still, NASA and Google have teamed up to form the Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab based on a D-Wave Two. And scientists at the University of Bristol last year hooked up one of their quantum chips to the Internet so anyone with a web browser can learn quantum coding.

4. Improved Microscopes

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In February a team of researchers at Japan’s Hokkaido University developed the world’s first entanglement-enhance microscopes, using a technique known as differential interference contrast microscopy. This type of microscope fires two beams of photons at a substance and measures the interference pattern created by the reflected beams—the pattern changes depending on whether they hit a flat or uneven surface. Using entangled photons greatly increases the amount of information the microscope can gather, as measuring one entangled photon gives information about its partner.

The Hokkaido team managed to image an engraved “Q” that stood just 17 nano meters above the background with unprecedented sharpness. Similar techniques could be used to improve the resolution of astronomy tools called interferometers, which superimpose different waves of light to better analyze their properties. Interferometers are used in the hunt for extra-solar planets, to probe nearby stars and to search for ripples in space time called gravitational waves.

5. Biological Compass

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Humans aren’t the only ones making use of quantum mechanics. One leading theory suggests that birds like the European robin use the spooky action to keep on track when they migrate. The method involves a light-sensitive protein called cryptochrome, which may contain entangled electrons. As photons enter the eye, they hit the cryptochrome molecules and can deliver enough energy to break them apart, forming two reactive molecules, or radicals, with unpaired but still entangled electrons. The magnetic field surrounding the bird influences how long these cryptochrome radicals last. Cells in the bird’s retina are thought to be very sensitive to the presence of the entangled radicals, allowing the animals to effectively ‘see’ a magnetic map based on the molecules.

This process isn’t full understood, though, and there is another option: Birds’ magnetic sensitivity could be due to small crystals of magnetic minerals in their beaks. Still, if entanglement really is at play, experiments suggest that the delicate state must last much longer in a bird’s eye than in even the best artificial systems. The magnetic compass could also be applicable to certain lizards, crustaceans, insects and even some mammals. For instance, a form of cryptochrome used for magnetic navigation in flies has also been found in human eye, although it’s unclear if it is or once was useful for a similar purpose.

Thank you So Much for Reading this Guys. Have a Nice Day.

“Science is Fun, We believe” – Limited Science        

What are Aliens?

Aliens are those unspecified creatures that is believed to exist in outer-space. But in Human Words, Aliens means a foreigners or especially one who is not a naturalized citizen of the country where he or she is living. But here were are talking about the real Aliens from Outer-space. It is said that they are often seen in our Earth, and they are believed to travel through UFOs(Unspecified Flying Object).

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So Do Aliens Exist? (Proofs for their Existence or  Not)

NASA’s Report ( Proof they Exist ):

It was reported by NASA that, “We backup from moon because we found some non-understandable creature on Moon. That is believed Aliens to Exist.” This was the time when they were landing Apollo 16. Apollo 16 was the 10th mission on Moon which was also failed because of Aliens on Marked dated April 16, 1972.

Proof they do not Exist :

An Atheist Giorgio A. Tsoukalo:

Giorgio A. Tsoukalo is a known Archaeologist. He believed “There is no Magic, no God, no Ghosts and no Aliens.” He gave the brief information about Aliens and concluded, “If Aliens were supposed to be living in this universe then we saw they are advanced than us. Some said they already invented UFOs but we cannot understand, How UFOs fly in sky and outer Space. And if they had seen us, they might already have finished up humans and flourished their civilization.” He told that All the stories related to Aliens were fake and those were just their Day Dream about Unspecified Creatures.

How do Aliens look like?

As none in this planet have seen Aliens, It is not confirmed yet how it looks. But its is believed to be small sized with a Oval or Triangle Shaped Head with no Ears at all, in White-Grey color as a Living soul in Universe.

Can it harm us?

It is often told Aliens can harm us, but in Nature it cannot. It is like a Soul which gets their energy via Sunlight. Most of the Aliens are friendly in Nature. Aliens cannot eat humans, instead it is said even they are advanced than us but they are scared of us and they will not harm us until we do to them.

These are all the thoughts of different persons from World, but it is not yet confirmed it exists or not. Scientists are still in the progress for finding the Clues for them. If they are really in friendly nature and do not harm peoples then it will be a really progressive thing for humans. But future is still to Come in next day to outcome the truth.

The exception of Saturn is arguably the most mesmerizing planet in our Solar System from the famous rings to it’s astonishing 62 Moons. Let’s look at the top 5 Amazing facts of Saturn.


1. Roman God of Time, Holidays

The God of Time, Roman actually he was the god of a lot of things including farming, freedom and weekends. Well may be the spare time of today Saturday also gets its name from Saturn. Saturn also shares its similarities with the Greek Titan Kronos but Romans declared Saturn to be their own special God.

2. The Discovery of Saturn

Saturn is one of those planets that is not really new, We know it’s billion of years old but we mean that people have know about it since antiquity. That’s because Saturn’s large size makes it noticeable to the naked eye on certain nights. Astronomers noticed that Saturn is as far as back as the first early millennium BC ancient Chinese Greek and Indian scholars, Great Wall of China. In fact, the 2nd Century Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy even came up with a calculation to Saturn’s orbit using earth and sun as base point.

3. How is Saturn formed?

Saturn is one of the four gas giants in our Solar System. Saturn is so Gigantic in fact that it could fit 764 earth inside it. It also has the distinction of being the second largest planet in our Solar System. Only to the Jupiter, The planet(Saturn) measures 75 thousand Miles or 120,000 kilometers in diameter, Nine times wider than Earth. Because of its gassy state you can’t actually stand on Saturn. There is simply nothing on the surface to support you. 96% of planet is made up of Hydrogen. A pretty unstable element to being with there is a Solid core in theory at least, but no one is certain how big is it.

4. Enceladus, Brightest Moon of Saturn

Enceladus is Saturn’s brightest Moon. Some moons stand out more than other with Enceladus specifically being the doesn’t need the spotlight. This small moon could sit nestled between Los Angeles than San Francisco because it’s well small but it still has a lot of scientists. A buzzer who wrote this anyway, it’s the brightest object in our Solar System. Thanks to its white icy surface. Its surface is freezing at the temperature of Minus 330 degrees Fahrenheit or Minus 201 degrees Celsius but there is one area that is not quite not that cold though. The South pole, that one warm section emits fountain of ice that last hundreds of miles into Space. The combination of ice and warmer temperatures has astronomers speculating about the possibility of life.

5. Saturn’s Moon Titan is Wild

Enceladus has gotten the recent buzz but Titan still gets the most attention. Titan is a wild place, I mean like spring break at Cancun wild. This orange moon is lined with Earth lined terrain including mountains deserts and riverbeds. There have been two unmanned missions to Titan is last 20 years. Each one gives more vivid picture of the giant moon while Titan looks similar to Earth. It doesn’t look to be habitable because its richness in methane which mixed with oxygen can be a combustible disaster. Of Course it’s freezing temperature of Minus 280 degrees Fahrenheit or Minus 173 degrees Celsius. And it still do not help either.

 1. Another New Planet found in our Solar System

A new Planet is found in our Solar System in September 2015. A group of international scientists discovered what appears to be a new dwarf planet orbiting the sun at the edge of our solar system. The Scientists named the planet RR 245 and it is approximately twice as far as Neptune is from the Sun. Our RR 245 takes 120 times longer to make a single revolution over the Sun than the Earth does. It is not yet known how large the planet is or its chemical makeup but this is an exciting discovery of Scientists nonetheless.

2. Medicine delivering nano Machine Early in 2015

Scientists for the first time delivered medicine in an animal via . These nano microscopic machines traveled into the body of a mouse to inject nano particle of a medicine into its stomach lining this may be a huge breakthrough in medical technology since the method was non-invasive and left the mouse unharmed. The microscopic machine reduce the need for invasive surgical procedures done on humans in the future.

3. Epigenomes

Scientists have recently finished reconstructing the accurate map of the human epigenome, thus far the epigenome is analogous to an instruction manual for our genome the bedrock of human existence. It is important to understand our genomes instructions so that scientists can make further discoveries about genome expression without the epigenome, there is no telling what kind of catastrophe would befall. The genome probably is similar to something, to an orchestra without a conductor.

4. Water on Mars

Good News, Scientists have finally discovered floating water on Mars. NASA was able to provide evidence of flowing water on Mars with the help of the MRO massif on what are called re-occurring slope line on the surface of Red Planet. These slopes can only be formed by the ebb and flow of liquid streams allowing scientists to deduce the existence of water on Mar’s surface. NASA concluded based on the irregularities of these slopes that water on Mars doesn’t flows consistently, puts in intervals nevertheless the discovering of floating water on extraterrestrial planets is a pivotal step in our search for life beyond Earth.

5. Ancient Species of Mammals

Researchers from the University of Edinburgh have discovered an ancient species of Mammals that survived a notorious extinction of the dinosaurs over 65 Million years ago. The reason this find is so significant is that, it gives us a glimpse at how mammals began to rule the world previously, Dominated by their cold blooded counterparts, the mammal is thought to have been a plant-eater closely resembling a modern beaver once dinosaurs were eliminated. These beaver like lake creatures began to flourish given that they were no longer victims of Dinosaurs. These all guys were able to withstand a destruction that wrecked all the dinosaurs; and an Array of Mammals including our ancestors were finally able to leave their mark on the World.

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